Online Work

Online Etymology Dictionary
The Sciolist
Slavery in the North
Civil War Writing


Civil War Causes

Economics
It's often said that the American Civil War was entirely and only about slavery. Is there another view?

Yankee Canards
Was the ante-bellum South a primitive, backwards, illiterate, violent culture?

Mulattoes
Numbers and significance of the Southern mulatto population

Northern Racism
De Tocqueville observed that "race prejudice seems stronger in those states that have abolished slavery than in those where it still exists, and nowhere is it more intolerant than in those states where slavery was never known"

Slavery as History
How can you make an honest inquiry into American slavery without understanding the mindset of slave-owners? How can you do that without being yourself a racist?

Rebel View
Early 19th century American politics and political culture as it was seen by many Southerners

Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was perhaps the greatest writer in American political history. Writers are great, in part, because of their ability to disguise what they really intend.

Lincoln and Race
"You and we are different races. We have between us a broader difference than exists between almost any other two races."

Thaddeus Stevens
The life and times of Pennsylvania's fiery anti-Southern Congressman

Sidelights on Christiana
The Christiana Riot of 1851 is sometimes described at the first skirmish of the Civil War

1860 Election
Even if all the Democrats had united behind one candidate, the Northern regional ticket would have won

Secession
The wire-pulling over the Morrill tariff bill in 1860 showed the party of the abolitionists cynically using a legitimate government mechanism to gain power in a presidential election.

Legal Issues
Secession was legal under the Constitution, based on its ratification by the states in 1787 and 1788

Cornerstone Speech
Alexander Stephens "Cornerstone Speech" in context.

Upper South
"States rights" is dismissed as a red herring argument, yet the Upper South states seem to have left the Union for this reason.

What Cost Union?
Lincoln saved the union, but at a terrible cost to America's democracy and culture of freedom.

CONFEDERATE WAR

Up from History
The evolving historical view of the American Civil War.

Soldiers and War
Responding to the slander against Southern military effort.

Why the South Lost
Was Northern victory inevitable?

War Effort
The South put forth a tremendous effort for independence.

The Southern Press
Journalism and Southern civil liberties.

Desertion
An examination of the myth of massive Southern desertion.

A Closer Look
Desertion by the numbers; case studies North and South.

Ella Lonn
The original study of desertion in the Civil War.

Conscription
Southern conscription was the first attempt to create a modern military system.

Draft of 1862
An overlooked draft in the North that was underway almost simultaneously with the first rebel conscription.

Albert B. Moore
An important source for the "South against the South" thesis.

Maryland
The Lincoln Administration's crackdown on Maryland.

Occupied Maryland
A sampling of federal documents dealing with martial law in Maryland.

Maryland Peace Party
A pamphlet from the anti-government forces in Maryland.

Habeas Corpus
The suspension of Habeas Corpus in the North by the Lincoln administration during the war.

Copperhead
A Northern newspaper editor fights the administration after it closes down his press in response to anti-government articles.

"Keystone Confederates"
Some Pennsylvanians fought for the South during the Civil War.

AFTER THE WAR

Southern Populists
"You are deceived and blinded that you may not see how this race antagonism perpetuates a monetary system which beggars you both."

Coatesville Lynching
Zach Walker was burned alive by a white mob in Coatesville, Pennsylvania.

York Riots
A little-known but violent 1960s race riot in York, Pennsylvania.

New South
Slavery, racism, and segregation were national experiences.

New Lost Cause
A native-born Southern white woman worked with native-born Southerners, black and white, with a shared sense of decency, to accomplishing the work of desegregation in Mississippi.

Flag dispute
From 1879 to 1956, the Georgia state flag was essentially the "Stars and Bars." If you were going to link any state flag with slavery, that would be the one.

Jonathan Kozol
"So two-tenths of 1 percent marks the difference between legally enforced apartheid in the South 50 years ago, and socially and economically enforced apartheid in New York today"

BIBLIOGRAPHY

sources consulted


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Andrews, J. Cutler, The South Reports the Civil War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Bates, Samuel P., History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-5. Harrisburg: B. Singerly, state printer, 1869-1871.

Bils, Mark, "Tariff Protection and Production in the Early U.S. Cotton Textile Industry," Journal of Economic History, 44, Dec. 1984, pp.1033-45.

Blair, William, Virginia's Private War: Feeding Body and Soul in the Confederacy, 1861-1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

--------------, and William Pencak, eds., Making and Remaking Pennsylvania's Civil War. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.

Bragg, William Harris, Joe Brown's Army. The Georgia State Line, 1862-1865. Macon, Ga,: Mercer Univ. Press, 1987.

Craven Avery O., "The Price of Union," Journal of Southern History, XVIII, Feb. 1952, pp.3-19.

Davis, David Brion, Slavery and Human Progress. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Elliot, Jonathan, The Debates of the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1876.

Emerson, William E., "Leadership and Civil War Desertion in the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Regiments of North Carolina Troops," Southern Historian 18 (fall 1997), pp. 17-33.

Fogel, Robert William, and Engerman, Stanley L., Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1974.

-------------, "Philanthropy at Bargain Prices: Notes on the Economics of Gradual Emancipation," Journal of Legal Studies, III, 1974, pp.380-1.

Fuller, J.F.C., "The Place of the American Civil War in the Evolution of War," Army Quarterly, XXVI, 1933, pp.316-325.

Gallagher, Gary W., The Confederate War. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Geary, James W., We Need Men: The Union Draft in the Civil War. DeKalb, Ill.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1991.

Genovese, Eugene, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.

Giuffre, Katherine A., "First in Flight: Desertion as Politics in the North Carolina Confederate Army," Social Science History 21, no.2 (summer 1997), pp. 245-63.

Hacker, Louis M., The Triumph of American Capitalism. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1940.

Hamilton, Alexander, "Report on the Subject of Manufactures," in F.W. Taussig, State Papers and Speeches on the Tariff. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1892. The report is also online, in exerpts, at http://members.tripod.com/~american_almanac/hammanuf.htm

Hammond, Bray, Banks and Politics in America From the Revolution to the Civil War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Hancock, Harold B., Delaware During the Civil War: A Political History. Wilmington, Historical Society of Delaware, 1961.

Harper, Douglas R., "If Thee Must Fight:" A Civil War History of Chester County, Pa. West Chester, Pa.: Chester County Historical Society, 1990.

------------------, West Chester to 1865: That Elegant & Notorious Place. West Chester, Pa.: Chester County Historical Society, 1999.

Hay, John, and John G. Nicolay, Letters and State Papers of Abraham Lincoln, 1894.

Hummel, Jeffrey Rogers, Emancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men. Chicago: Open Court, 1996.

Jacoby, Tamar, Someone Else's House: America's Unfinished Struggle for Integration. Basic Books, 2000.

Klein, Herbert S., The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.

Litwack, Leon F., North of Slavery. The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961.

Lonn, Ella, Desertion During the Civil War. Gloucester, Mass.: American Historical Association, 1928. Reprint 1998 by Bison Books.

McManus, Edgar J., Black Bondage in the North. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1973.

-------------, A History of Negro Slavery in New York. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1966.

McPherson, James M., Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1996.

-------------, What They Fought For, 1861-1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994.

-------------, introduction to Writing the Civil War: The Quest to Understand, McPherson and William J. Cooper, eds. University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

McDonald, Forrest, States Rights and the Union 1776-1876. University Press of Kansas, 2000.

-------------, Novus Ordo Seclorum. University Press of Kansas, 1985.

Mitchell, Reid, The Vacant Chair: the Northern Soldier Leaves Home. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Moore, Albert Burton, Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy. New York: MacMillan, 1924; reprint 1963 (with introduction by William Garrett Piston), University of South Carolina.

Murdock, Eugene C., Patriotism Limited 1862-1865: The Civil War Draft & Bounty System, Kent State U. Press, 1967.

-----------------, ed., One Million Men: The Civil War Draft in the North, Champaign: University of Illinois, 1971.

Nash, Gary B., Race and Revolution. Madison, Wisc.: Madison House, 1990.

------------, and Jean R. Soderlund, Freedom by Degrees: Emancipation in Pennsylvania and Its Aftermath. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Nichols, Roy Franklin, The Disruption of the American Democracy. N.Y.: The MacMillan Co., 1948.

O'Connor, Thomas H., Lords of the Loom, the Cotton Whigs and the Coming of the Civil War. N.Y.: Scribner's, 1968.

Paquette, Robert Louis, and Ferleger, Louis A., eds., Slavery, Secession, and Southern History. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000.

Rable, George C., The Confederate Republic: A Revolution Against Politics. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Reed, H. Clay, "Lincoln's Compensated Emancipation Plan," in Delaware Notes, 7 (1931).

Roark, James L., "Behind the Lines: Confederate Economy and Society," in James M. McPherson and William J. Cooper, eds., Writing the Civil War: The Quest to Understand. University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

Ruffner, Kevin Conley, "Civil War Desertion from a Black Belt Regiment: An Examination of the 44th Virginia Infantry," in Edward L. Ayers and John C. Willis, eds., The Edge of the South: Life in Nineteenth-Century Virginia. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1991.

--------------------, Maryland's Blue & Gray: A Border State's Union and Confederate Junior Officer Corps. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Scott, Robert N., ed., The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 127 volumes, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1880-1909.

Shankman, Arnold M., The Pennsylvania Anti-War Movement 1861-1865. Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Presses, 1980.

Shannon, Fred Albert, The Organization and Administration of the Union Army, 1861-65, Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1928.

Silver, David M., Lincoln's Supreme Court, Univ. of Ill. Press, 1957.

Stampp, Kenneth M., And the War Came. The North and the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1970.

Summers, Mark W., The Plundering Generation: Corruption and the Crisis of the Union, 1849-1861. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Taussig, F.W., The Tariff History of the United States. New York, 1893.

Terrell, W.H.H., Indiana in the War of the Rebellion, official report of the state adjutant general, Indianapolis, 1869.

Thomas, Emory, The Confederate Nation, 1861-65. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Trefousse, Hans L., Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2000.

Van Metre, T.W., "The Coastwise Trade of the Atlantic Coast, 1789-1860," and "Early Development of the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1789-1830," both in History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States, Vol. I, Washington, D.C., The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915.

Vandiver, Frank E., "The Confederacy and the American Tradition," Journal of Southern History, XXVIII, Aug. 1962, pp.277-286.

Wallace, Anthony F.C., Rockdale: The Growth of an American Village in the Early Industrial Revolution. N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 1972.

Watkins, Sam R., Co Aych. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1962.

Weigley, Russell F., ed., Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 1982.

Weitz, Mark A., A Higher Duty : Desertion Among Georgia Troops During the Civil War. University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

Williams, William H., Slavery and Freedom in Delaware, 1639-1865, Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1996.

Woodward, C. Vann, The Burden of Southern History. 3rd edition. Louisiana State University Press, 1993.

Wright, William C., The Secession Movement in the Middle Atlantic States. Cranbury, N.J.: Associated University Presses, 1973.

2002Douglas Harper "When misunderstanding serves others as an advantage, one is helpless to make oneself understood." -Lionel Trilling